Day 2: Flannel Boards

by | Adapt & Modify Activities

Flannel boards were my favorite when I was a student in kindergarten. I remember being fascinated by these pieces of fabric sticking to one another without glue. And, my kindergarten teacher had such an amazing variety of silhouettes, I was always excited to see the next set.

But, once again, sharing flannel board play with my son was not going to happen unless I made some adaptations.


Flannel board play pinterest screenshot

Pinterest is overflowing with images of children playing with flannel board sets. I imagine them telling stories and engaging in hours of imaginative play. But, a disabled child may show little to no interest in these would-be fantasy-grabbers unless we adapt/modify their use.

Why flannel boards may be a challenge for neurodiverse and disabled children:

  • A child cannot be expected to engage in imaginative play when they are not developmentally-appropriate.
  • The 2-dimensional nature of felt and flannel might be tricky for a child to manipulate if they have fine motor difficulties.
  • The texture might be an issue for children with tactile sensory aversions.
  • Silhouettes are sometimes difficult for some children to decipher.
  • Small parts can be a choking hazard for children who still mouth everything.


Suggestions for adaptations/ modifications for flannel boards

  • Don’t expect to use flannel boards for imaginative/pretend-play if the child is not at this developmental ready. If the child isn’t ready for pretend or imaginative play with playscapes like a dollhouse or farm animal set (and played within their intended use), then the child likely isn’t ready for imaginative flannel board play. That doesn’t mean you can’t use flannel boards altogether – just not for free-play/pretend-play just yet.
  • Begin by modelling what one does with a flannel board. I use a flannel board as an accompaniment to storytelling. When I read or tell a story, I have the flannel board out with my cut-outs and use them as visual reenactments of the story. The first few times you do this, the child may show little interest. That’s OK. You simply want to be modelling how a flannel board works. It’s an added visual as you read and with repetition, the child’s interest will likely increase.


flannel board tips for children with special needs - board propped up

This board is propped up on a stool and against a counter which brings it to eye level when my son is in his adapted chair.


  • Use simple, large and obvious shapes. Whether you buy pre-cut sets or make your own, it’s important to think about these three elements: large/over-sized, simple, and obvious shapes. In other words, you want apples that look like apples, and rabbits that look like rabbits. The child will not be able to connect with the image if it just looks like a blob sitting on board. Even if the child isn’t ready for abstract images (as opposed to the real apple), it’s OK. Your goal is to eventually understand this board holds things on it that have some kind of meaning/purpose. It will be with the repetition of seeing this board that interest will develop.
  • Connect the flannel board objects with real objects. When using the apples flannel board, I always have an apple out and repeat, “apple” (while holding up the real apple) and “apple” (while showing the flannel board apple).


flannel board tips for childrenw with special needs - simple and large cut-outs are best

Cut large and obvious shapes. Also, be sure to secure the multiple layers properly. I had originally used permanent fabric glue, but the pieces eventually came apart. If you want small pieces to stick onto larger ones, consider stitching with embroidery thread.


  • Connect flannel board objects with your weekly/monthly theme or story. It is beneficial to reinforce words and skills by having them show up throughout the day in many different contexts. While variety might work for children already in the pretend play stage, this would only confuse the child who is just beginning to explore flannel board use.
  • Allow the child to touch the flannel and felt. You don’t even need to have defined shapes yet. Start with a large sheet of felt or a large flannel blanket in the sensory bin (day 1) and have the child explore these textures for some time. Have them feel them on different parts of their body: face, arm, feet, etc. Always follow their lead and never pressure a child to play with felt or flannel (or anything else, for that matter).
  • Eventually, have the child touch the large cut-outs. When you are sure that the child won’t gag from touching flannel, hand them a large felt cut-out from your activity and allow them to explore. You can work on having them “tap, tap, tap” the felt onto the flannel board.  See what else they do and reinforce it with language/verbal routines.


flannel board tips for children with special needs

Try to use one set for multiple uses. I used the apples set with this book, along with other apple books. But, I also used them with apple songs and rhymes. A little work cutting them out goes a long way if you use your imagination.


  • Allow the child to participate in storytelling with the flannel/felt board set. It may take several weeks of observation and exploration, but eventually have your child take part in placing the felt shapes on (not off yet, as that may be difficult – being two-dimensional) the board as you tell a story. I recommend doing this at their adapted seat or at a table so that you can lay the flannel board flat on the table. This prevents the cut-out from falling off and disappointing the child. You may have to use hand-over-hand (with consent) and repeat, “tap, tap, tap” when placing each piece. Don’t forget to praise when the shape is down: “Hurray! You did it! Hurray!”
  • Like sensory bins, when playing with flannel boards, it’s wise to build up the amount of time a child plays with them. “Play” in this case includes just paying attention to you as you read and place cut-outs on the flannel board. Start with 3 – 5 minutes, and build up to 10, 15 and 20 minutes over a span of weeks or months. Some children need to be given time to develop skills – not insistence to keep working at a task longer.
  • Place Velcro dots on the back of flannel cut-outs when learning to “pull” felt pieces off. The Velcro elevates the felt to make it easier to grasp. Be sure to stitch (not glue) the Velcro dot for safety purposes.
  • Some additional ideas for flannel board sets: count up or down using the pieces in accordance with a song or rhyme; themes can be seasonal, color-related, shape-related, or even holiday related; connect them to the child’s favorite story/song; use PECS cards with laminated images along with the matching felt image. Flannel boards can be used with older child as well. Ask yourself how you can use felt cut-out with language or even math activities. This multi-sensory, hands-on approach is wonderful for learning experiences of all types!


flannel board tips for children with special needs - simple holiday themes

A seasonal set. I kept it simple, large and obvious. I didn’t include details like eyes and buttons for safety reasons.


Never create small parts unless you know your child can handle them safely and always supervise felt-play.

How do you use flannel boards? 

If you want personalized strategies, I offer consultations for parents and educators. I’d love to guide you.


More Resources

Continue reading my essays, activities, and case studies for supporting the education of disabled/chronically ill and neurodivergent children.